Narration Rules of Tense
When we transform from direct to indirect, we have to change tense and here is the 12 tenses rules & example for narration. Let’s start to learn narration rules of tense.
|Narration Rules & Examples of Present Tense|
|SL||Tense||Direct Speech||Indirect Speech|
|1||Tense||Simple present/ Present Indefinite||Simple past/ Past Indefinite|
|Example||“I always drink coffee”, she said.||She said that she always drank coffee.|
|2||Tense||Present continuous||Past continuous|
|Example||“I am reading a book”, he explained.||He explained that he was reading a book|
|3||Tense||Present perfect||Past perfect|
|Example||“I have gone to Spain”, he told me.||He told me that he had gone to Spain.|
|4||Tense||Present perfect continuous||Past perfect continuous|
|EXample||They complained, “We have been waiting for hours”.||They complained that they had been waiting for hours.|
Narration Rules & Examples of Past Tense
|5||Tense||Simple past/ Past Indefinite||Past perfect|
|Example||“Bill arrived on Saturday”, he said.||He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday.|
|6||Tense||Past continuous||Past perfect continuous|
|Example||“We were living in Paris”, they told me.||They told me that they had been living in Paris.|
|7||Tense||Past perfect||Past perfect|
|Example||“I had just turned out the light,” he explained.||He explained that he had just turned out the light.|
|8||Tense||Past Perfect Continuous||Past Perfect Continuous|
|Example||I said to Keyamony, “I had been living in Saudi Arabia”||I told Keyamony that I had been living in Saudi Arabia.|
Narration Rules & Examples of Future Tense
|9||Tense||Future Indefinite –shall/ will||should/would|
|Example||“I will do this on Monday”, he said.||He said that he would do this on Monday.|
|10||Tense||Future continuous||Conditional continuous|
|Example||She said, “I’ll be using the car next Friday”.||She said that she would be using the car next Friday.|
|11||Tense||Future perfect||Conditional continuous|
|Example||She said to Hassan, “I‘ll have visited this month”.||She told Hassan that she would have visited that month.|
|12||Tense||Future perfect continuous||Conditional continuous|
|Example||Hassan said to Ayat, “I’ll have been studying this subject until next month”.||Hassan told Ayat that he (Hassan) would have been studying this subject until the following month.|
Now Your Turn: Change the following speech
- He said to me, “I write a letter.”
- Sonia said to me, “You are writing a letter”.
- Sohana said to me, “They have done their duty”.
- Romel said to me, “I have been reading”.
- Halima said to him, “I met you yesterday”.
- Badhon said to her, “You were going to Dhaka”.
- Bakiya said to her brother, “He had done”.
- Suchona said to me, “I had been waiting for you”.
- Any said to me, “I will do this math”.
- Mumtahena said to me, “You will be doing math”.
- Maha said to me, “I will have read”.
- Sorna said to you, “He will have been doing”.
Md Sayed Ali
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